and non-technical challenges of CCU must be addressed by Indonesia through sufficient funding and support from both the public and private sectors. However, some barriers remain that hinder the deployment of CCS. Considering the level of CO2 emission given in Figure 1, this CO2 storage capacity will not cover the predicted CO2 emissions from fossil fuel in 2030 or 2050. However, other than for producing urea, the use of CCU on an industrial scale remains insignificant, especially for direct capture from flue gas. New York: Centre for Low Carbon Futures,. Carbon Capture and Utilization The three largest-scale CO2-derived products are urea with 157 Mtoe worldwide, followed by salicylic acid and cyclic carbonate with, respectively, 90 and 80 thousand tonnes worldwide ( Styring., 2014 ). The NEP scenario reduces CO2 emissions by up to 26 through an improved energy mix, less reliance on carbon-based fuels, and the deployment of renewable energy sources from 2020 to 2050. Because CCS alone is insufficient to attain the CO2 emission goals, CCU technology offers an alternative in which CO2 is put to use rather than simply sequestered. CCS and Carbon Capture and Utilization for Indonesia.
The prediction of CO2 emission would change significantly with the increase of emission reduction from 6 in 2025 to 37 in 2050 in case the CCS and CCU application has been applied. Carbon capture and utilization might be more attractive to Indonesia than CCS alone because the industrial products from CO2 have a significant potential market due to Indonesias increasing population and concomitant economic growth. Acknowledgments We would like to say thank you to our sponsor, this paper would not have been completed without support from lpdp (Indonesian Endowment Fund for Education). This paper considers the CCU concept only in conjunction with the conversion. Industry for a Better Life. Google Scholar Syahrial,. He believes the conclusions in the paper are wrong and says his views are backed up by rebuttals from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the Pacific Northwest National laboratory and the American Petroleum Institute.
Jeff Chapman, chief executive of the ccsa, believes Economides has made inappropriate assumptions about the science and geology. Currently, the most attractive option for CCS in Indonesia is CO2 storage in conjunction with EORs, because oil production has the potential to generate additional revenue that can offset the cost of CCS ( Syahrial., 2010 ).