most important one was Article X which stated that "all members undertake to respect and preserve as against external aggression the territorial integrity and political independence of all members of the League". The USA had the greatest power to intervene in case of tension between countries which could lead to possible conflicts. The main goal of the League was to prevent further conflict but it also dealt with humanitarian and economic problems. The successes of the League usually involved small or medium powered nations which wanted to avoid war and so the League managed to enforce a settlement on these disputes. Woodrow Wilson had talked about the League of Nations in his Fourteen Points. The absence of three major powers, USA, Germany and ussr meant that collective security had little chance of succeeding. Article X stated that all members had to protect other members in the event of an aggression. The USA and Britain went back into isolationism. When the USA refused to be part of the League and provide guaranteed military support to France, Britain also withdrew from the military guarantee. Ussr and Germany did not support the Versailles Treaty nor the League as they had been excluded from these and Germany was blamed for starting the war. This was the idea of collective security.
France and Britain had very different mind sets about the treaty and Germany, Britain wanted Germany to rebuild its economy for the purpose of trade and France wanted to make it as hard as possible for Germany to recover economically as it was worried about. This created tension instead of a reconciliation that Wilson had proposed. Disputes arose within the League itself. The Covenant was made up of 26 articles.
The League Covenant was written into the Versailles Treaty and so all those who signed the treaty would become members of the League. Since Germany was not producing arms in the ussr, the effectiveness of the disarmament process that the League had worked on was greatly reduced. The idea of collective security was a new one. The League had a mandate to resolve conflicts between nations so that peace could be maintained. It also undermined the terms of the Treaty of Versailles as Germany could increase its armament and train military staff in the ussr without the League knowing. By agreeing to article X, each nation was being forced to defend the other nations from aggression no matter what the costs where and had to do so even if they had no interest in it for themselves.
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The goal was to create an organisation that would prevent war and resolve conflict by discussing issues in a peaceful manner. In the past alliances had been made between countries with similar interests. USA never joined, ussr and Germany excluded. There was the mandate commissions, the refugee department, the slavery commission, the drugs department as well as an International Court of Justice and an International Labour Organisation. Affected the purpose and power of the League. Peacekeeping was made increasingly difficult when the members of the League themselves could not resolve their own conflicts. This was a big sacrifice especially to South American nations who would have little interest in having to go to war for a dispute occurring in central Europe. This meant that money and military staff would have to be sacrificed if ever one nation was under threat. The formation of the League was one of Wilson's most important goals. As soon as the ussr and Germany regained their strength, the new small states in Europe would be under threat.
This created conflict within the League. The failed interventions include Vilna, the Russo-Polish War, the Seizure Fiume and the Ruhr invasion. This weakened the League even further.
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